WEB SITE OF THE TURKISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW  by Kemal Gözler      www.anayasa.gen.tr

 

 

 

 

 

Turkish Constitutional Law
Materials in English

 

by

 

Kemal Gözler

 

 

 

I. Ottoman Constitutional Documents

 

1. The Rescript of Gülhane – Gülhane Hatt-ı Hümayunu – 3 November 1839 

 

2. Rescript of Reform – Islahat Fermanı – 18 February 1856

 

3. The Ottoman Constitution, 23 December 1876

 

4. Revised Articles of the 1876 Constitution, August 1909

 

Ömer Faruk Gençkaya's Web Site http://www.bilkent.edu.tr/~genckaya/documents1.html

 

Alan Fisher's "History 373 Web Page" http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst373/Gulhane.html

 

 

II. The Constitutions of the Turkish Rebuplic

 

1. The 1921 Constitution

The English translation of the 1921 Constitution of 1921 is not available. But an English translation of the selections from the 1921 Constitution can be found at  http://www.bilkent.edu.tr/~genckaya/1921C.html (by Ö. F. Gençkaya).

 

2. The 1924 Constitution

The English Translations of the 1924 Turkish Constitution:

The Turkish Constitution, New York, 1949, 19 p.

Edward Mead Earle, "The New Constitution of Turkey", Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Mar., 1925), pp.73-100 (Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0032-3195%28192503%2940%3A1%3C73%3ATNCOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6 )
or  http://www.bilkent.edu.tr/~genckaya/1924constitution.pdf

 

 

3. The 1961 Constitution

The English Translations of the 1961 Constitution:

Print:

- Sadık Balkan, Ahmet E. Uysal and Kemal H. Karpat (Translated for the Committee of National Unity by), Constitution of the Turkish Republic, Ankara, 1961, 48 pages. 

- Sadik Balkan, Ahmet E. Uysal and Kemal H. Karpat (Trans.), "Constitution of the Turkish Republic (text)", Middle East Journal, 1962, Vol. 16,  p.15-38.

- Sadık Balkan, Ahmet E. Uysal and Kemal H. Karpat (Trans.), "Constitution of the Turkish Republic" in Amos J. Peaslee (ed.), Constitutions of Nations, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 3rd Edition by Dorothy Peaslee Xydis, 1968, vol. III: "Europe", p.1156-1194

- The Turkish Constitution as Amended, Ankara, Office of the Prime Minister, Directorate General of Press and Information [Başbakanlık Basımevi], 1978, 88 pages.

- "Turkey", in Albert P. Blaustein and Gisbert H. Flanz, Constitutions of the Countries of the Worlds, Dobbs Ferry,  NY:  Oceana Publications, 1976.

E-text:

- Constitution of the Turkish Republic (Translated for the Committee of National Unity by Sadık Balkan, Ahmet E. Uysal and Kemal H. Karpat),  Ankara, 1961, 48 pages.  [PDF] http://www.anayasa.gen.tr/1961constitution-text.pdf   (5 MB).  (Reproduced with the permission of Kemal H. Karpat) (Permission Document: E-mail from. K.H. Karpat, March 21, 2006)

 

- The Turkish Constitution as Amended, Ankara, Office of the Prime Minister, Directorate General of Press and Information [Basbakanlik Basimevi], 1978, 88 pages. (Translated by Mustafa Gerçeker, Erhan Yasar and Orhan Tung). [PDF] http://www.anayasa.gen.tr/1961constitution-amended.pdf (6,75 MB) (Reproduced with the permission of Directorate General of Press and Information. Permission Document: E-mail from Orhan Tung, dated April 28, 2006)

 

 

 

4. The 1982 Constitution

The English Translations of the 1982 Constitution:

Print:

- Prime Ministry, Directorate General of Press and Information, The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, Ankara, 1984.

- Ömer Faruk Gençkaya, "Republic of Turkey," in Gisbert H. Flanz (ed.) Constitutions of the Countries of the World, Release 95-7, Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., November 1995. xi + 8 p.

- Ömer Faruk Gençkaya, "Recent Constitutional Amendments to the 1982 Constitution of Turkey," in Gisbert H. Flanz (ed.), Constitutions of the Countries of the World, Release 99-7, Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., November 1999. 14 p.

- Ömer Faruk Gençkaya, "Politics of Constitutional Amendment in Turkey, 1987-2002," with a revised and updated translation of the 1982 Constitution of Republic of Turkey, in Gisbert H. Flanz (ed.), Constitutions of the Countries of the World, Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., February 2003.

E-Text:

- Web Site of the Office of the Prime Minister, Directorate General of Press and Information: http://www.byegm.gov.tr/mevzuat/anayasa/anayasa-ing.htm

- Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupc/ca/cag/I142.htm (removed). But see: http://www.constitution.org/cons/turkey/turk_cons.htm

- The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Turkey:

http://www.anayasa.gov.tr/images/loaded/pdf_dosyalari/THE_CONSTITUTION_OF_THE_REPUBLIC_OF_TURKEY.pdf

- CODICES:  http://codices.coe.int/NXT/gateway.dll?f=templates&fn=default.htm  CODICES > Constitutions > English > Turkey

- ICL (International Constitutional Law): http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/tu00000_.html

- The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey [1982] (Translated by Erhan Yasar) (Version including amendments of 1987, 1993 and 1995). http://www.anayasa.gen.tr/1982Constitution-EYasar.htm  (Originally published in the web site of "Legislation Profile Turkey")

 

 

III. An Outline of Turkish Constitutional Developments and the 1982 Constitution

 

A. Turkish Embassy in Washington, DC.  http://www.turkishembassy.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=25&Itemid=287

 

 

 

B. Turkey Almanac 2004, p.149-173 (This book has been prepared by the Turkish News Agency for the Directorate General of Press & Information of the Prime Ministry)

 The State Order, The Constitution, The Legal System http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/kitaplar/turkiye2004/content/english/p_04.htm

The Constitution

Fundamental Bodies of the State

Legal System

Unitary Structure of the State and the Administration

The Election System and Political Parties

 

 

C. Web Site of the Turkish Grand National Assembly

The Constitutional Tradition and Parliamentary Life http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/english/about_tgna.htm

THE FIRST CONSTITUTION
THE FIRST PARLIAMENT
THE TRANSITION TO NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY
THE ERZURUM CONGRESS
THE SIVAS CONGRESS
THE NATIONAL PACT
FOUNDING OF THE TURKISH GRAND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
WAR AND PEACE
THE CONSTITUTION OF 1921
PROCLAMATION OF THE REPUBLIC
THE CONSTITUTION OF 1924
THE TRANSITION TO A MULTI-PARTY PERIOD
THE CONSTITUTION OF 1961
THE CONSTITUTION OF 1982
The General Principles of the Constitution
The Turkish Grand National Assembly* and its Working order
    ORGANIZATION RIGHT TO VOTE AND BE ELECTED
    LEGISLATIVE IMMUNITY
    THE FUNCTIONS AND POWERS OF THE TGNA
    CONVENTION AND ADJOURNMENT
    THE BUREAU OF THE ASSEMBLY
    POLITICAL PARTY GROUPS
    CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE
    COMMITTEES
    GENERAL ASSEMBLY
    ENACTING LAWS
    CHANGING THE CONSTITUTION
    THE TURKISH GRAND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY'S SUPERVISORY FUNCTION
    FOREIGN RELATIONS
    ADMINISTRATIVE AND SERVICE UNITS
    ADMINISTRATIVE SET-UP
  
 

D. Mustafa Sarımollaoğlu's Web Page

http://www.ualr.edu/mxsarimollao/turkiye/politics.htm

 

E. "Turkish Politics" by Ugur Akinci

www.turkishpolitics.us

 

F. Web Site of the Turkish Constitutional Law

Kemal Başlar & Hikmet Tülen, "The Constitutional Court: 1962-2003 (An Introduction to the Composition and Functions of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Turkey)", www.anayasa.gen.tr/baslar1.htm

 

 

Constitutional Court of the Republic of Turkey (Anayasa Mahkemesi)

   http://www.anayasa.gov.tr/images/loaded/english/ingalbumjpg.pdf

 

- The English translations of some decisions of the Turkish Constitutional Court can be found  at the CODICES database of the Venice Commission. < http://codices.coe.int/NXT/gateway.dll?f=templates&fn=default.htm >

On the left menu, click on CODICES > Précis - Décisions abrégées > English > Europe > Turkey.

 

 

Council of State (Danıştay)

http://www.danistay.gov.tr/eng/index.html

 

Supreme Military Administrative Court (Askeri Yüksek İdare Mahkemesi)

http://www.msb.gov.tr/prgs/ayim/ayim_ana.asp?DILIDNO=2

 

Supreme Election Council  (Yüksek Seçim Kurulu)

http://www.ysk.gov.tr/

 

 

 

 

CURRENT EVENTS

6 June 2008: The Turkish Constitutional Court annulled the Constitutional Amendments that would allow women to wear the Muslim headscarf at Turkish universities.

 

The Annulment Decision dated 5 June 2008, numbered E.2008/16,  K.2008/116, is not yet published in the Official Gazette. The Decision dated 5 June 2008, numbered E.2008/16,  K.2008/16 (YD), which was published in the Official Gazette dated 13 June 2008, numbered 26905 is a “stay order”. It is not a full decision (not a “reasoned decision”). There is no written statement of reasons for decision. The Turkish text of stay order is available at http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2008/06/20080613-4.htm or http://www.anayasa.gov.tr/eskisite/KARARLAR/IPTALITIRAZ/YD/k-2008-16yd.htm   

 

The English translation of that “stay order” is not available.

 

The Reasoned Annulment Decision dated 5 June 2008, numbered E.2008/16,  K.2008/116, is not yet published, so its English translation does not exist. (Before Oct. 22, 2008)

 

A report of events, in English, and Timeline of headscarf status, are available in Today's Zaman, June, 7, 2008 at http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=144047

 

Oct. 22, 2008: The Reasoned Annulment Decision dated 5 June 2008, numbered E.2008/16,  K.2008/116, is published in the Official Journal, Oct. 22, 2008, No. 27032. The Turkish text of this decision is available at http://www.anayasa.gov.tr/eskisite/KARARLAR/IPTALITIRAZ/K2008/K-2008-116.htm (web site of the Turkish Constitutional Court) or 

http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2008/10/20081022-15.htm (web site of Official Journal).

The English translation of that decision is not available (Feb. 2009).


 

- Dec. 20, 2008: Kemal Gözler, Judicial Review of Constitutional Amendments: A Comparative Study, Bursa, Ekin Press, 2008, XII+ 126 p. is published.  An online version of this book is available at http://www.anayasa.gen.tr/jrca.htm  (Dec. 20, 2008)

 

 

 


Editor: Kemal Gözler

E-mail: kgozler[at]hotmail.com

Home: www.anayasa.gen.tr

Original URL: http://www.anayasa.gen.tr/english.htm

Maintained by Kemal Gözler

Original date: May 25, 2004 — Last Updated: Feb. 9, 2009.

(c) 2004-2009. K. Gözler